Gums form a layer of connective tissue around the neck of each tooth and molar and covered with the jawbone. Healthy gums form a tight seal around the crown and protect the vulnerable tooth neck against dental caries. If the gums are damaged, it can start to ignite and the seal will decrease. Most disorders can be prevented with good oral hygiene.
Most adults ever have a certain gum disease that, if not treated, can lead to loss of teeth. Good oral hygiene is necessary to prevent such a condition. During the normal dental check-up, most dentists and dental hygienists will tell about dental care and the correct method of brushing teeth, flossing.
Below are first treated gum disorders such as gum disease and periodontitis (inflammation (of the root membrane) in the dental socket), which can be caused by poor oral hygiene. Inadequate brushing of teeth leads to the accumulation of plaque (a deposit of food particles, saliva and bacteria) on the teeth. If it is not removed, the gums become inflamed and can retreat, exposing the root and causing tooth decay. In severe cases, the teeth and molars may stand loose or fall out because the tooth root membrane is inflamed and peels off the element. Finally, the “dry tooth case” is treated, a condition where the tooth case becomes inflamed after the element is pulled.
The gums become soft due to the accumulation of plaque on the element. The gums also bleed easily. Minor gum disease is a very common disorder and affects nine out of ten adults. Healthy gums are pink (sometimes brown / black) and firm. Gum inflammation turns purple-red, soft and shiny and bleeds easily, especially when brushing your teeth. The condition usually results from the accumulation of plaque where the gums lie against the neck of the element. Gum inflammation can be made worse by taking certain drugs such as phenytoin and some immune suppressants and antihypertensive drugs.
These drugs can cause gum growth, making it difficult to remove plaque. Some contraceptives can also make the symptoms worse. Pregnant women are especially susceptible to the condition because of the profound changes in their hormonal balance. Gum inflammation that develops suddenly is known as ANUG (acute necrotic ulcerative gingivitis, an acutely dying purulent gum disease) and commonly occurs in adolescents. The condition sometimes comes from chronic gum disease and is caused by a sudden increase in the bacteria that are usually in the mouth. ANUG is more common in people who suffer from stress or are weakened and in people with AIDS.
The symptoms of gum disease develop gradually and include:
- Purple-red, soft, shiny and swollen gums.
- Bleeding gums when brushing your teeth Smoking somewhat masks the symptoms, which may make the abnormality worse than it appears. If gum inflammation is not treated, the gums will withdraw from the element and a pocket will be created in which more plaque can accumulate. Bacteria in the plaque can cause the inflammation to spread. Periodontitis or receding gums may eventually develop. In severe cases, one or more elements may be lost. Symptoms of ANUG usually develop within one to two days and include:
- Bright red gums that are covered with a gray batter;
- Crater-like sores on the gums;
- Easily bleeding gums;
- Bad breath and a metallic taste in the mouth;
- Pain in the gums.
As the inflammation continues, the lymph nodes in the neck may swell and you may develop a fever.
With gum disease, your dentist or dental hygienist is likely to scrape your teeth to remove plaque and tartar (hardened plaque). After scraping, the teeth are polished. Regular follow-up visits to the dentist may be necessary to monitor the condition of the gums. Your dentist may also recommend using a mouthwash that contains hydrogen peroxide; that has a cleansing effect and prevents the build up of plaque. If you have ANUG, your dentist will carefully clean all teeth. He will prescribe antibiotics and a disinfecting mouthwash. Painkillers can relieve pain. Once your teeth have been thoroughly cleaned, your gums will slowly return to normal. You can prevent gum disease with good oral hygiene.
The gums and tissues are inflamed and the gums have withdrawn, so the elements have less support and protection. Periodontitis is common in people 55 years and older and is an important cause of dental loss. In this condition, the tissues that hold the teeth in the dental sockets become inflamed and release the elements. The damage caused by periodontitis is irreversible, but further inflammation can be prevented by treatment and improving oral hygiene.
The most common form of periodontitis is chronic periodontitis, which often occurs as a side effect of gum disease caused by poor oral hygiene. If you do not brush your teeth properly, plaque (a deposit of food residues, saliva and bacteria) and tartar (hardened plaque) accumulate on the element, causing the gums to become inflamed. Over time, the gums come loose from the element and pockets are created in which even more plaque can collect. During inflammation, bacteria in the plaque can affect the gums, causing them to become inflamed and release from the element. The inflammation also causes loss of jawbone that surrounds the elements. They stand loose and can fall out.
Root tip inflammation is another form of periodontitis caused by tooth decay, usually due to untreated pulpitis. If tooth decay is not treated, the hard enamel and the dental bone will be destroyed, allowing bacteria to reach the pulp. The bacteria spread to the tooth root tip and the surrounding tissue, causing the tooth socket to become inflamed. Rare genetic abnormalities, such as juvenile periodontitis, can cause severe forms of periodontitis in children to young adults.
In the first stage of periodontitis you may not notice the symptoms. Symptoms are:
- Red, soft shiny gums that bleed quickly and can retreat;
- Nasty taste in the mouth, bad breath;
- Toothache when consuming hot, cold or sweet foods or drinks.
In the final stage of chronic periodontitis, the elements can become detached. The symptoms of a root-point infection are:
- Toothache in a certain place, especially when biting;
- Stand apart from an element;
- Swelling of the jaw.
- Sometimes an abscess forms.
Warning! If any of these symptoms occur, you must go to your dentist immediately.
Your dentist will examine your teeth and gums and measure the depth of the pockets with a special instrument. He can also take X-rays to see how much bone has since been lost.
Chronic periodontitis is treated by removing the plaque and the tartar. Sometimes a piece of gum is removed to shrink the pocket. The affected layer of gums in the pockets can be removed so that healthy tissue can attach to the element again. After the operation, a disinfectant rinse can be recommended to inhibit inflammation. If the periodontitis is severe, a course of antibiotics may be prescribed, or antibiotics may be placed in the pocket.
Loose elements can be attached to adjacent teeth and molars to prevent them from falling out. Sometimes growth-promoting membranes are applied, so that the tissues can recover and the depth of the pockets is reduced. Root tip inflammation is treated by removing the bacteria from the tooth cavity and applying a root canal treatment. An element that cannot be saved must be drawn. After treatment, your dentist recommends brushing and flossing your teeth at least twice a day to prevent plaque and tartar buildup.
With chronic periodontitis, scraping the teeth, mouthwashes and proper brushing and flossing should prevent the gums from retreating further and you lose your teeth. In the case of dental root inflammation, filling the root canal must prevent the inflammation from spreading.
The withdrawal of the gums leaving the roots exposed. Healthy gums form a tight seal around the tooth neck. When the gums recede, a part of the root is exposed, which weakens the connection between the element and the tooth socket. Ultimately, the tooth or molar may become loose; in severe cases he must be pulled by the dentist. If the roots are exposed, the teeth can be sensitive to hot, cold or sweet substances. The root is softer than the enamel of the crown and therefore more sensitive to tooth decay.
Receding gums are usually a symptom of chronic gum disease or periodontitis. These disorders are usually the result of poor oral hygiene and the accumulation of plaque (a deposit of food residues, saliva and bacteria) and tartar (hardened plaque) between the tooth and gums. This will cause the gums to become inflamed and withdrawn, exposing the root. Hard and rough brushing along the gum line, especially when done horizontally with a hard toothbrush, can also be a cause.
Once the process is underway, surgical techniques can be applied so that the root is covered again and further withdrawal is prevented. Improving oral hygiene is just as important. Your dentist or dental hygienist will remove the plaque and tartar from your teeth. Regular thorough cleaning should prevent further withdrawal of the gums. The dentist or dental hygienist will therefore advise you on the best way to brush and floss your teeth to prevent damage to the roots. He or she may also recommend an insensitive toothpaste or fluoride mouthwash, which further reduces the risk of tooth decay. If your teeth are very sensitive, an insensitive layer can be applied to the exposed root parts or sticky filler material. When all elements have become loose, they can sometimes be attached to elements that are still properly anchored in the jawbone.
Increasing and swelling of the gums due to various causes. Increase or swelling of gums, a condition called dental hyperplasia, usually results from normal gum disease. The cause is poor oral hygiene, as a result of which plaque (a mixture of food scraps, saliva and bacteria) and tartar (hardened plaque) can accumulate on the border of the tooth and gums. The gums become inflamed and bleed easily, especially when brushing. Dental hyperplasia can also be a side effect of drugs such as antihypertensive drugs, anticonvulsants to prevent seizures in epilepsy and certain immune suppressants. The condition can occur during pregnancy due to hormonal changes. In very rare cases there is acute leukemia.
To combat dental hyperplasia, the dentist will remove plaque and tartar and advise you about brushing your teeth and flossing. In certain cases, excess gums can be removed. If you use drugs that cause dental hyperplasia, you can look for drugs that do not have this side effect or have less of it. An underlying condition, such as acute leukemia, will be treated if possible. Dental hyperplasia during pregnancy will disappear after the birth of your child when the hormone level returns to normal.
Inflammation of the alveolus that arises after the element has been pulled and does not disappear. After an element is drawn, blood enters the tooth socket. The blood solidifies, allowing the damaged tooth socket to heal. If the clot disappears for some reason, for example, by rinsing too roughly, or if it is inflamed, the jawbone can become inflamed, a condition called “dry tooth” or post-extraction alveolitis. A dry tooth socket occurs in about 4 percent of the extractions, and in most of these cases after a difficult extraction of a molar in the lower jaw. The condition is generally more common in smokers and in women who take oral contraceptives.
The symptoms of dry tooth socket include a severe, throbbing pain that extends to the ear two to four days after extraction, a bad taste in the mouth, and bad breath. The dental socket can only partially heal, and sometimes small pieces of bone come out of the wound.
The treatment of a dry tooth case consists of rinsing the tooth case with warm, water or a disinfecting solution. After that, the dentist will fill the dental socket with a disinfecting paste. This treatment must be repeated every two to three days until the dental socket heals. Your dentist can also recommend rinsing with warm, salt water at home. The healing process of the dental socket must start within a few days, and after a few weeks the dental socket must be completely healed. Your dentist can teach you to rinse a dry tooth socket or prescribe an antibiotic to cure tooth inflammation. If after a few days the dental socket has not healed or if you continue to feel pain, visit your dentist as soon as possible. You can take a painkiller while waiting.